The 1999 Civil Code also governs certain issues related to land (ARD 2003; GOT 2008; Duncan 2000; Robinson et al. 2009). In 1995, the president issued two important decrees on land reform, to follow up on the sooner laws.
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During the Soviet period, 99% of agricultural land was within the arms of large state or collective farms, and 1% of agricultural land was cultivated for family subsistence by households. The 1996 Land Code granted every family a everlasting, heritable use right to a 0.15–0.forty hectare household plot. These household ―backyard or ―kitchen plots had generally been granted to members of state and collective farms within the Soviet era. The authorities expanded distribution of these small plots in two phases, corresponding to Presidential Decrees in 1995, 1996 and 1997. It thus allotted a total of 75,000 additional hectares in plots that are commonly known as ―Presidential Lands, which have been used primarily to bolster the scale of garden plots that have been beneath the nationwide minimum measurement.
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Local governments have the essential function of allocating, withdrawing and regulating most land plots and particular person small holdings, although the Land Code additionally designates to the Land Committee the authority to allocate land (ARD 2003; GOT 2008, Arts. 6–7). A lack of basic information concerning land-use rights is another main barrier to tenure security. For example, it is possible for employees to belong to a collective dehkan without realizing that the farm is now not a collective or state farm. The dehkan certificates for land-use proper is issued within the name of the dehkan head, versus the names of each member. Additionally, when collective or state farms are transformed into collective dehkan, managers often continue to report to the khukumat as a substitute of to dehkan members. First, the Land Committee points a Land Use Certificate to the farm supervisor or leader, describing the farm’s physical location and limits. Second, the Land Committee issues individual Land Use Sub-Certificates to all everlasting workers on the farm.
KM analyzed and interpreted transcripts from focus group discussions with individuals and identified main and minor themes relating to dietary practices, meals taboos, and well being beliefs. KM drafted and revised the manuscript a number of times with substantial input from EW. Golden CD, Comaroff J. The human health and conservation relevance of food taboos in northeastern Madagascar. In the case of publish-Soviet Tajikistan, the threat of starvation going through residents the mid-Nineteen Nineties demanded changes in values and practices all through the food system. The emergence of unspecific food taboos could characterize a response to rising values around low-enter, domestically produced meals merchandise. Interestingly, related trends have been reported in other international locations that shared shut economic ties to Soviet Russia and experienced excessive challenges to meals security after 1991, most prominently Cuba .
The Land Committee holds the ability to legislate, implement, and adjudicate land claims. If a party is not happy with the Land Committee’s decision, it may appeal to the formal courts (ARD 2003; GOT 2008). Local governments’ authority over land issues typically overlaps that of the Land Committees, creating confusion in areas such as land registration and management over land-use. For instance, the Land Code lists ―conducting the state land cadastre and land monitoring under the jurisdiction of each the state Land Committees and the local governments.
Land Use Sub-Certificates have been launched in 1998 and followed by a Government Resolution in 1999 to simplify procedures for registration of land-use rights. However, people must still petition their local khukumat to apply for and register a bodily land-share, and the khukumats have a variety of discretion in determining what land to distribute and to whom (ARD 2004; Lerman and Sedlik 2008; Robinson et al. 2008). Land-use rights have to be registered by the raion Land Committee and khukumats. Rights of perpetual use, restricted use and lifelong inheritance use should be recorded in a certificates, while leases should be registered in the Land Use Registry.
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Under Decree No. 342, fifty-thousand hectares of collective and state farm land were to be transferred to personal household plots. This was adopted by Decree No. 621 which basically reiterated the provisions of the 1992 Law on Land Reform . Many individuals choose to supplement their state-allotted family plot by leasing land. Foreign citizens and authorized persons could be assigned land rights for as much as 50 years (Lerman and Sedlik 2008; ARD 2003). Dehkan farms may be established upon application by people, families, or collectives. A household dehkan consists of two or extra related families who produce and market collectively. A collective dehkan consists of two or extra unrelated families, producing and advertising collectively.
Land allotted by Presidential Decree is distributed based on household dimension and measurement of present plots, with precedence given to families with much less land per capita. Individuals hold non-transferable use-rights to Presidential Decree family plots for a perpetual time period. Land is distributed through the Special Land Fund, which is made up of unused, devalued, or expropriated agricultural land, reserved land, deforested land suitable for agriculture, and other former state and collective farm land that has not been used in agricultural manufacturing. Dehkan farmers, half-time farmers, people using https://yourmailorderbride.com/tajikistan-women the land for household backyard plots, and other people with agricultural knowledge and skills obtain precedence in distribution. Land from the redistribution of state and collective farms is split into plots based mostly on the quantity of land and number of farm employees with rights to the land. These plots are the shares of the workers, who apply to the district Land Committee to withdraw their share. Workers can get a plot of land from the state or collective farm on which they labored, or they’ll acquire a separate plot of land primarily based on the value of their share.
The Land Code, adopted in 1996 and as amended, provides a framework for current land-associated legislation in Tajikistan. The 1996 Land Code reaffirmed state possession of land and makes provisions to safe the rational use and safety of land. Under the Land Code, pastureland is taken into account ―agricultural land and so is topic to the same legal guidelines as arable land.
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The the rest of the agricultural land is currently held in dekhan farms (controlling roughly 60% of this land), by the state (controlling approximately 25% of this land), and by various different agricultural entities and municipalities (controlling four–5% of this land). The previous breakdown, whereas not totaling one hundred% of agricultural land in the aggregate, is based on the most effective available estimates; data varies (Lerman and Sedlik 2008; World Bank 2008; Duncan 2000). Tajikistan is a mountainous country with a primarily rural inhabitants depending on livestock and small-scale agriculture. The snow and glaciers of the high mountains feed the country’s many rivers and streams and permit intensive, irrigated cultivation of farms established within the valleys. Both are shared with neighboring countries and end within the Aral Sea basin in Uzbekistan. The rivers additionally present important hydropower for the operation of Tajikistan‘s aluminum business. High-altitude plateaus present seasonal grazing for herds of large and small animals.